Existentialism

Existentialism holds that humans create their own meanings in life, and meanings are not given to us from outside sources such as gods or fairies.
This has lots of different interesting logical implications, and exploring one or two of those implications can make for an interesting philosophy paper. Existentialism is also a philosophical movement and as such includes a number of different philosophers with different ideas about what it means Thus it might be interesting to try to narrow down and clarify the views of one particular existentialist philosopher, or perhaps to think about what two or more "existentialist" philosophers have in common. Finally, existentialism has been attacked by people who want us to believe it's immoral, or logically wrong, or has something else wrong with it, and it might make a good paper to defends.

Your assignment is to do just one of the following tasks:

Do not waste your time summarizing or paraphrasing the Wikipedia article, or some other internet source. Pick one thing to do and just do that thing.

Sources on Existentialism

Existentialism is also widely misunderstood, which can make it difficult to study. A few years ago, the wikipedia article (existentialism) on the subject was terrible, and I told students not to read it. Nowadays, it seems to be more or less okay, but it's not particularly useful.

You can read up on some version existentialism in one of the following pages:
Existentialism is a Humanism, Jean-Paul Sarte 1946
http://www.philosopher.org.uk/existen.htm
http://www.allaboutphilosophy.org/existentialism.htm

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9108678/Existentialism
http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/philosophy/existentialism/whatis.html
Existentialism - New World Encyclopedia
Existentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
BBC - BBC Radio 4 Programmes - In Our Time, Existentialism (Audio file)
http://www.iep.utm.edu/s/sartre-ex.htm

You can consult Wikipedia for criticisms of existentialism http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Existentialism#Criticisms_of_existentialism)

And try to answer the following questions
1. What does existentialism say exactly?
2. What are the arguments for existentialism?
3. What are the arguments against existentialism?
4. Is existentialism true? Why or why not?


It's okay if question 1 is as far as you can get for stage 1. (The hardest part of this topic seems to be coming up with your own definition of existentialism, so if most (or all) of your first paper is taken up with simply giving, explaining and illustrating a single, clear and complete definition of "existentialism," I will not complain.)

Or you can explore some of the specific themes of existentialism

Authenticity . . . . . authenticity . . . . .Absurdism . . . . . Facticity . . . . . Being and Nothingness . . . . . in-itself . . . . . angst . . . . quietism . . . . .. Other . . . . . phenomenology . . . . . intersubjectivity . . . . . Gaze . . . . . Angst . . . . . angst . . . . . anguish . . . . . Despair . . . . . Existential crisis . . . . . Either/Or . . . . . Works of Love . . . . . nothing . . . . . Positivism . . . . . Rationalism . . . . . positivism . . . . . rationalism . . . . . anxiety . . . . . dread . . . . . freedom . . . . . Atheistic existentialism . . . . . Christian existentialism . . . . . Jewish existentialism . . . . . subject . . . . . Existential nihilism . . . . . nihilism . . . . . Angst . . . . . leap of faith . . . .

Or perhaps some book or film with existential implications

. Neon Genesis Evangelion . . . . . Hideaki Anno . . . . . Jean-Paul Sartre . . . . . Soren Kierkegaard…死に至る病、そ して . . . . . The Sickness Unto Death . . . . . Monty Python . . . . . Monty Python's Flying Circus . . . . . Monty Python's The Meaning of Life . . . . . Fight Club . . . . . I ♥ Huckabees . . . . . Waking Life . . . . . The Matrix . . . . . Ordinary People . . . . . Life in a Day . . . . . The Seventh Seal . . . . . Ikiru . . . . . Taxi Driver . . . . . Harold and Maude . . . . . High Noon . . . . . Easy Rider . . . . . One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest . . . . . A Clockwork Orange . . . . . Groundhog Day . . . . . Apocalypse Now . . . . . Badlands . . . . . Blade Runner . . . . . Dark City . . . . . demiurges . . . . . Plato's cave . . . . . Ingmar Bergman . . . . . François Truffaut . . . . . Jean-Luc Godard . . . . .

Random Collection Of Wiki Pages Relevant To Existentialism

Existential quantification . . . . . Existence (disambiguation) . . . . . Essentialism . . . . . Kierkegaard . . . . . Dostoyevsky . . . . . Nietzsche . . . . . Sartre . . . . . Soren Kierkegaard . . . . . meaning . . . . . passionately and sincerely ("authentically") . . . . . World War II . . . . . Jean-Paul Sartre . . . . . Steven Crowell . . . . . understood . . . . . Johan Sebastian Cammermeyer Welhaven . . . . . Rune Slagstad . . . . . Anne-Lise Seip . . . . . Cathrinus Bang . . . . . Existence precedes essence . . . . . essence . . . . . consciousness . . . . . Heidegger . . . . . Kierkegaard . . . . . Existentialism is a Humanism . . . . .Samuel Beckett . . . . . Franz Kafka . . . . . Fyodor Dostoyevsky . . . . . Eugene Ionesco . . . . . Albert Camus . . . . . The Myth of Sisyphus . . . . .determinism . . . . .Friedrich Nietzsche . . . . . moral . . . . . existential . . . . . Camus . . . . . Sartre . . . . . Being and Nothingness . . . . . Gabriel Marcel . . . . . Jean-Paul Sartre . . . . . L'existentialisme est un humanisme . . . . . Existentialism is a Humanism . . . . . Jean-Paul Sartre . . . . . Simone de Beauvoir . . . . . Maurice Merleau-Ponty . . . . . Albert Camus . . . . . Socrates . . . . . Soren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche . . . . . Soren Kierkegaard . . . . . Friedrich Nietzsche . . . . . Soren Kierkegaard . . . . . Friedrich Nietzsche . . . . . Pascal . . . . . knight of faith . . . . . Übermensch . . . . . Freedom . . . . .postmodernism . . . . . psychology . . . . . religious . . . . . philosophers . . . . . psychologists . . . . . scientists . . . . . Fyodor Dostoyevsky . . . . . Fyodor Dostoyevsky . . . . . Notes from Underground . . . . . Jean-Paul Sartre . . . . . Existentialism is a Humanism . . . . . The Brothers Karamazov . . . . . existential crisis . . . . . Crime and Punishment . . . . . Martin Heidegger . . . . . Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo . . . . . Cervantes . . . . . Don Quixote . . . . . Saint Manuel the Good, Martyr . . . . . Ortega y Gassetó . . . . . Martin Buber . . . . . Frankfurt . . . . . Zionism . . . . . Hasidism . . . . . Jerusalem . . . . . I and Thou . . . . . Lev Shestov . . . . . Nikolai Berdyaev . . . . . Gabriel Marcel . . . . . Cartesian . . . . . Jean-Paul Sartre . . . . . Karl Jaspers . . . . . Heidelberg . . . . . Martin Heidegger . . . . . Marburg . . . . . Freiburg . . . . . National Socialism . . . . . Being and Time . . . . . Jean-Paul Sartre . . . . . Second World War . . . . . Jean-Paul Sartre . . . . . Albert Camus . . . . . Being and Time . . . . . Jean-Paul Sartre . . . . . Nausea . . . . . The Wall . . . . . Being and Nothingness . . . . . French Resistance . . . . . Combat . . . . . Les Temps Modernes . . . . . secular humanism . . . . . Caligula . . . . . The Plague . . . . . The Roads to Freedom . . . . . The Blood of Others . . . . . phenomenology . . . . . Edmund Husserl . . . . . Martin Heidegger . . . . . Being and Nothingness . . . . . Alexandre Kojève . . . . . Raymond Queneau . . . . . Georges Bataille . . . . . Louis Althusser . . . . . André Breton . . . . . Jacques Lacan . . . . . Being and Time . . . . . Albert Camus . . . . . Jean Beaufret . . . . . Marxism . . . . . Critique of Dialectical Reason . . . . . The Rebel . . . . . The Stranger . . . . . The Myth of Sisyphus . . . . . Sisyphus . . . . . Simone de Beauvoir . . . . . The Second Sex . . . . . The Ethics of Ambiguity . . . . . Paul Tillich . . . . . Karl Barth . . . . . Christian theology . . . . . existential theology . . . . . Rudolf Bultmann . . . . . Maurice Merleau-Ponty . . . . . existential phenomenologist . . . . . Husserl . . . . . phenomenology . . . . . Colin Wilson . . . . . The Outsider . . . . . Jean Genet . . . . . Un chant d'amour . . . . . Stanley Kubrick . . . . . Paths of Glory . . . . .Michelangelo Antonioni . . . . . Akira Kurosawa . . . . . Terrence Malick . . . . . Stanley Kubrick . . . . . Andrei Tarkovsky . . . . . Hideaki Anno . . . . . Wes Anderson . . . . . Woody Allen . . . . . Christopher Nolan . . . . . Charlie Kaufman . . . . . Synecdoche, New York . . . . . Red Beard . . . . . existential crisis . . . . . Mood Indigo (film) . . . . . Michel Gondry . . . . . Louis-Ferdinand Céline . . . . . Journey to the End of the Night . . . . . Nausea . . . . . Albert Camus . . . . . Franz Kafka . . . . . Rainer Maria Rilke . . . . . T.S. Eliot . . . . . Herman Hesse . . . . . Jack Kerouac . . . . . postmodernist . . . . . Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? . . . . . Blade Runner . . . . . Philip K. Dick . . . . . Slaughterhouse-Five . . . . . Kurt Vonnegut . . . . . Fight Club . . . . . Chuck Palahniuk . . . . . Fyodor Dostoyevsky . . . . . Michel Foucault . . . . . Franz Kafka . . . . . Friedrich Nietzsche . . . . . Soren Kierkegaard . . . . . Herbert Marcuse . . . . . Gilles Deleuze . . . . . Arthur Schopenhauer . . . . . Eduard von Hartmann . . . . . Chuck Palahniuk . . . . . Crispin Glover . . . . . Charles Bukowski . . . . . Jean-Paul Sartre . . . . . No Exit . . . . . 1944 . . . . . play . . . . . Theatre of the Absurd . . . . . Samuel Beckett . . . . . Waiting for Godot . . . . . exercise . . . . . suicide . . . . . pathos . . . . . meaning of human existence . . . . . Tom Stoppard . . . . . Rosencrantz & Guildenstern Are Dead . . . . . absurdist . . . . . tragicomedy . . . . . Edinburgh Festival Fringe . . . . . Shakespeare's . . . . . Hamlet . . . . . Samuel Beckett . . . . . Waiting For Godot . . . . . Questions . . . . . Jean Anouilh . . . . . Antigone . . . . . Martin Esslin . . . . . Samuel Beckett . . . . . Eugène Ionesco . . . . . Jean Genet . . . . . Arthur Adamovs. Though . . . . . 'Pataphysics . . . . . Surrealism . . . . . Existential therapy . . . . . Otto Rank . . . . . Ludwig Binswanger . . . . . Freud . . . . . Edmund Husserl . . . . . Heidegger . . . . . Sartre . . . . . Viktor Frankl . . . . . Freud . . . . . Jung . . . . . logotherapy . . . . . social psychology . . . . . sociology . . . . . symbolic interactionism . . . . . post-structuralism . . . . . Georg Simmel . . . . . Michel Foucault . . . . . Rollo May . . . . . Kierkegaard . . . . . Otto Rank . . . . . Irvin D. Yalom . . . . . Medard Boss . . . . . Eugène Minkowski . . . . . Emmy van Deurzen . . . . . psychotherapy . . . . . philosophy . . . . . Humanistic psychology . . . . . Terror management theory . . . . . Ernest Becker . . . . . Otto Rank . . . . . Logical positivist . . . . . Rudolf Carnap . . . . . Alfred Ayer . . . . . predicate . . . . . Raymond Aron . . . . . rational humanists . . . . . Herbert Marcuse . . . . . Being and Nothingness . . . . . Jean-Paul Sartre . . . . . hypostatizes . . . . . Abandonment (existentialism) . . . . . Absurdism . . . . . Atheist existentialism . . . . . Christian existentialism . . . . . Disenchantment . . . . . Existentiell . . . . . List of existentialists . . . . . Meaning (existential) . . . . . Phenomenology . . . . . Crowell, Steven . . . . . Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy . . . . . Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy . . . . . doi . . . . . JSTOR© . . . . . Robert Baldick . . . . . Prentice-Hall . . . . . Yalom, Irvin D. . . . . . Routledge . . . . . Oscar Zarate . . . . . Rose, Eugene (Fr. Seraphim) . . . . . Solomon, Robert C. (ed.) . . . . . In Our Time . . . . . BBC . . . . . Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy . . . . . Philosophy . . . . . Branches of philosophy . . . . . Metaphysics . . . . . Epistemology . . . . . Logic . . . . . Ethics . . . . . Aesthetics . . . . . Action . . . . . Art . . . . . Being . . . . . Biology . . . . . Business . . . . . Chemistry . . . . . Computer science . . . . . Culture . . . . . Design . . . . . Dialogue . . . . . Education . . . . . Economics . . . . . Engineering . . . . . Environment . . . . . Film . . . . . Futility . . . . . Geography . . . . . Information . . . . . Healthcare . . . . . Hermeneutics . . . . . History . . . . . Human nature . . . . . Humor . . . . . Justice . . . . . Language . . . . . Law . . . . . Literature . . . . . Mathematics . . . . . Mind . . . . . Music . . . . . Pain . . . . . Philosophy . . . . . Physics . . . . . Politics . . . . . Psychology . . . . . Religion . . . . . Science . . . . . Sexuality . . . . . Social science . . . . . Society . . . . . Space and time . . . . . Technology . . . . . War . . . . . Schools of thought in philosophy . . . . . By era . . . . . Ancient . . . . . Western . . . . . Medieval . . . . . Renaissance . . . . . Modern . . . . . Contemporary . . . . . Ancient . . . . . Chinese . . . . . Agriculturalism . . . . . Confucianism . . . . . Legalism . . . . . Logicians . . . . . Mohism . . . . . Chinese naturalism . . . . . Neotaoism . . . . . Taoism . . . . . Yangism . . . . . Zen . . . . . Greco- . . . . . Roman . . . . . Aristotelianism . . . . . Cynicism . . . . . Epicureanism . . . . . Neoplatonism . . . . . Peripatetic . . . . . Platonism . . . . . Presocratic . . . . . Pythagoreanism . . . . . Sophism . . . . . Stoicism . . . . . Indian . . . . . Buddhist . . . . . Cārvāka . . . . . Hindu . . . . . Jain . . . . . Persian . . . . . Mazdakism . . . . . Zoroastrianism . . . . . Zurvanism . . . . . Christian . . . . . Scholasticism . . . . . Renaissance humanism . . . . . Thomism . . . . . Korean Confucianism . . . . . Rigaku . . . . . Neo-Confucianism . . . . . Navya-Nyāya . . . . . Vishishtadvaita . . . . . Dvaita . . . . . Islamic . . . . . Averroism . . . . . Avicennism . . . . . Persian Illuminationism . . . . . Kalam . . . . . Sufi . . . . . Jewish . . . . . Judeo-Islamic . . . . . Modern . . . . . Absolute idealism . . . . . Anarchism . . . . . Cartesianism . . . . . Liberalism . . . . . Dialectical materialism . . . . . Empiricism . . . . . Hegelianism . . . . . Idealism . . . . . Kantianism . . . . . Kokugaku . . . . . Marxism . . . . . Modernism . . . . . Neo-Kantian (Modern) . . . . . Neo-Thomism . . . . . New Confucianism . . . . . Phenomenology . . . . . Pragmatism . . . . . Rationalism . . . . . Transcendentalism . . . . . Utilitarianism . . . . . Contemporary . . . . . Analytic . . . . . Analytic feminism . . . . . Consequentialism . . . . . Experimental philosophy . . . . . Internalism and Externalism . . . . . Falsificationism . . . . . Foundationalism . . . . . Coherentism . . . . . Logical positivism . . . . . Legal positivism . . . . . Quinean Naturalism . . . . . Neo-Kantian (Contemporary) . . . . . Ordinary language philosophy . . . . . Quietism . . . . . Rawlsian . . . . . Reformed epistemology . . . . . Postanalytic philosophy . . . . . Utilitarianism (Contemporary) . . . . . Neo-Aristotelian . . . . . Vienna Circle . . . . . Wittgensteinian . . . . . Continental . . . . . Critical theory . . . . . Deconstruction . . . . . Feminist . . . . . Frankfurt School . . . . . Postmodernism . . . . . Post-structuralism . . . . . Social constructionism . . . . . Structuralism . . . . . Kyoto School . . . . . more... . . . . . Aesthetics . . . . . Formalism . . . . . Institutionalism . . . . . Aesthetic Response . . . . . Ethics . . . . . Consequentialism . . . . . Egoism . . . . . Deontology . . . . . Virtue . . . . . Free will . . . . . Compatibilism . . . . . Determinism . . . . . Libertarianism . . . . . Metaphysics . . . . . Atomism . . . . . Dualism . . . . . Monism . . . . . Naturalism . . . . . Epistemology . . . . . Constructivism . . . . . Empiricism . . . . . Idealism . . . . . Particularism . . . . . Rationalism . . . . . Skepticism/Nihilism . . . . . Solipsism . . . . . Mind . . . . . Behaviorism . . . . . Eliminativism . . . . . Epiphenomenalism . . . . . Functionalism . . . . . Normativity . . . . . Absolutism . . . . . Particularism . . . . . Relativism . . . . . Nihilism . . . . . Skepticism . . . . . Universalism . . . . . Ontology . . . . . Action . . . . . Event . . . . . Process . . . . . Reality . . . . . Anti-realism . . . . . Conceptualism . . . . . Idealism . . . . . Materialism . . . . . Naturalism . . . . . Nominalism . . . . . Realism . . . . . African . . . . . Ethiopian . . . . . Aztec . . . . . Eastern . . . . . Chinese . . . . . Indian . . . . . Indonesian . . . . . Iranian . . . . . Japanese . . . . . Korean . . . . . Pakistani . . . . . Western . . . . . American . . . . . British . . . . . Danish . . . . . French . . . . . German . . . . . Greek . . . . . Italian . . . . . Polish . . . . . Romanian . . . . . Russian . . . . . Slovene . . . . . Outline . . . . . Index . . . . . Years . . . . . Problems . . . . . Schools . . . . . Glossary . . . . . Philosophers . . . . . Movements . . . . . Publications . . . . . Continental philosophy . . . . . Theodor W. Adorno . . . . . Giorgio Agamben . . . . . Louis Althusser . . . . . Hannah Arendt . . . . . Gaston Bachelard . . . . . Alain Badiou . . . . . Roland Barthes . . . . . Jean Baudrillard . . . . . Zygmunt Bauman . . . . . Simone de Beauvoir . . . . . Henri Bergson . . . . . Pierre Bourdieu . . . . . Judith Butler . . . . . Albert Camus . . . . . Ernst Cassirer . . . . . Cornelius Castoriadis . . . . . Gilles Deleuze . . . . . Jacques Derrida . . . . . Johann Fichte . . . . . Michel Foucault . . . . . Frankfurt School . . . . . Hans-Georg Gadamer . . . . . Antonio Gramsci . . . . . Jürgen Habermas . . . . . Georg Hegel . . . . . Martin Heidegger . . . . . Edmund Husserl . . . . . Roman Ingarden . . . . . Karl Jaspers . . . . . Immanuel Kant . . . . . Soren Kierkegaard . . . . . Alexandre Kojève . . . . . Leszek Kołakowski . . . . . Jacques Lacan . . . . . François Laruelle . . . . . Claude Lévi-Strauss . . . . . Emmanuel Levinas . . . . . Gabriel Marcel . . . . . Maurice Merleau-Ponty . . . . . Friedrich Nietzsche . . . . . Paul Ricœur . . . . . Avital Ronell . . . . . Jean-Paul Sartre . . . . . Friedrich Schelling . . . . . Carl Schmitt . . . . . Arthur Schopenhauer . . . . . Slavoj Žižek . . . . . more... . . . . . German idealism . . . . . Hegelianism . . . . . Critical theory . . . . . Psychoanalytic theory . . . . . Structuralism . . . . . Postmodernism . . . . . Poststructuralism . . . . . Angst . . . . . Authenticity . . . . . Being in itself . . . . . Boredom . . . . . Dasein . . . . . Différance . . . . . Difference . . . . . Existential crisis . . . . . Facticity . . . . . Intersubjectivity . . . . . Ontic . . . . . Other . . . . . Self-deception . . . . . Trace . . . . . more... . . . . . Kantianism . . . . . Phenomenology . . . . . Hermeneutics . . . . . Deconstruction . . . . . Discussion . . . . . Metaphysics . . . . . Parmenides . . . . . Plato . . . . . Aristotle . . . . . Maimonides . . . . . Kapila . . . . . Plotinus . . . . . Duns Scotus . . . . . Thomas Aquinas . . . . . Francisco Suárez . . . . . René Descartes . . . . . John Locke . . . . . David Hume . . . . . Immanuel Kant . . . . . Isaac Newton . . . . . Arthur Schopenhauer . . . . . Baruch Spinoza . . . . . Georg W. F. Hegel . . . . . George Berkeley . . . . . Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz . . . . . Henri Bergson . . . . . Friedrich Nietzsche . . . . . Charles Sanders Peirce . . . . . Ludwig Wittgenstein . . . . . Martin Heidegger . . . . . Alfred N. Whitehead . . . . . Bertrand Russell . . . . . Dorothy Emmet . . . . . G. E. Moore . . . . . Jean-Paul Sartre . . . . . Gilbert Ryle . . . . . Hilary Putnam . . . . . P. F. Strawson . . . . . R. G. Collingwood . . . . . Adolph Stöhr . . . . . Rudolf Carnap . . . . . Saul Kripke . . . . . Willard V. O. Quine . . . . . G. E. M. Anscombe . . . . . Donald Davidson . . . . . Michael Dummett . . . . . more ... . . . . . Action theory . . . . . Anti-realism . . . . . Determinism . . . . . Cartesian dualism . . . . . Enactivism . . . . . Essentialism . . . . . Free will . . . . . Hindu idealism . . . . . Idealism . . . . . Libertarianism . . . . . Liberty . . . . . Materialism . . . . . Meaning of life . . . . . Monism . . . . . Naturalism . . . . . Nihilism . . . . . Phenomenalism . . . . . Realism . . . . . Physicalism . . . . . Pirsig's metaphysics of Quality . . . . . Platonic idealism . . . . . Relativism . . . . . Samkhya . . . . . Scientific realism . . . . . Solipsism . . . . . Subjectivism . . . . . Substance theory . . . . . Type theory . . . . . Abstract object . . . . . Anima mundi . . . . . Being . . . . . Category of being . . . . . Causality . . . . . Choice . . . . . Cogito ergo sum . . . . . Concept . . . . . Embodied cognition . . . . . Entity . . . . . Essence . . . . . Existence . . . . . Experience . . . . . Idea . . . . . Identity . . . . . Identity and change . . . . . Information . . . . . Insight . . . . . Intelligence . . . . . Intention . . . . . Linguistic modality . . . . . Matter . . . . . Meaning . . . . . Memetics . . . . . Mental representation . . . . . Mind . . . . . Motion . . . . . Necessity . . . . . Notion . . . . . Object . . . . . Pattern . . . . . Perception . . . . . Physical body . . . . . Principle . . . . . Property . . . . . Qualia . . . . . Quality . . . . . Reality . . . . . Soul . . . . . Subject . . . . . Substantial form . . . . . Thought . . . . . Time . . . . . Truth . . . . . Type-token distinction . . . . . Universal . . . . . Unobservable . . . . . Value . . . . . more ... . . . . . Axiology . . . . . Cosmology . . . . . Epistemology . . . . . Meta- . . . . . Ontology . . . . . Philosophy of mind . . . . . Philosophy of psychology . . . . . Philosophy of self . . . . . Philosophy of space and time . . . . . Teleology . . . . . Theoretical physics . . . . . Philosophy of religion . . . . . Afterlife . . . . . Euthyphro dilemma . . . . . Faith . . . . . Miracle . . . . . Problem of evil . . . . . Religious belief . . . . . Soul . . . . . Spirit . . . . . Theodicy . . . . . Theological veto . . . . . Aristotelian view . . . . . Brahman . . . . . Demiurge . . . . . Divine simplicity . . . . . Egoism . . . . . Holy Spirit . . . . . Maltheism . . . . . Pandeism . . . . . Personal god . . . . . Process theology . . . . . Supreme being . . . . . Unmoved mover . . . . . Abrahamic religions . . . . . Buddhism . . . . . Christianity . . . . . Hinduism . . . . . Islam . . . . . Jainism . . . . . Mormonism . . . . . Sikhism . . . . . Bahá'í Faith . . . . . Existence of God . . . . . Beauty . . . . . Christological . . . . . Consciousness . . . . . Cosmological . . . . . Degree . . . . . Desire . . . . . Experience . . . . . Love . . . . . Miracles . . . . . Morality . . . . . Ontological . . . . . Pascal's Wager . . . . . Proper basis . . . . . Reason . . . . . Teleological . . . . . Natural law . . . . . Watchmaker analogy . . . . . Transcendental . . . . . 747 Gambit . . . . . Atheist's Wager . . . . . Evil . . . . . Free will . . . . . Hell . . . . . Inconsistent revelations . . . . . Nonbelief . . . . . Noncognitivism . . . . . Occam's razor . . . . . Omnipotence . . . . . Poor design . . . . . Russell's teapot . . . . . Acosmism . . . . . Agnosticism . . . . . Animism . . . . . Antireligion . . . . . Atheism . . . . . Dharmism . . . . . Deism . . . . . Divine command theory . . . . . Dualism . . . . . Esotericism . . . . . Exclusivism . . . . . Christian . . . . . Agnostic . . . . . Atheist . . . . . Feminist theology . . . . . Fundamentalism . . . . . Gnosticism . . . . . Henotheism . . . . . Humanism . . . . . Religious . . . . . Secular . . . . . Christian . . . . . Inclusivism . . . . . Metatheories of religion in the social sciences . . . . . Monism . . . . . Monotheism . . . . . Mysticism . . . . . Naturalism . . . . . Metaphysical . . . . . Religious . . . . . Humanistic . . . . . New Age . . . . . Nondualism . . . . . Nontheism . . . . . Pandeism . . . . . Panentheism . . . . . Pantheism . . . . . Perennialism . . . . . Polytheism . . . . . Process theology . . . . . Religious skepticism . . . . . 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Ernst Haeckel . . . . . Ernst Troeltsch . . . . . Friedrich Schleiermacher . . . . . Friedrich Nietzsche . . . . . Gaunilo of Marmoutiers . . . . . Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel . . . . . George Santayana . . . . . Harald Hoffding . . . . . Heraclitus . . . . . Immanuel Kant . . . . . J. L. Mackie . . . . . Jean-Luc Marion . . . . . Johann Gottfried Herder . . . . . Karl Barth . . . . . Karl Christian Friedrich Krause . . . . . Karl Marx . . . . . Lev Shestov . . . . . Loyal Rue . . . . . Ludwig Feuerbach . . . . . Maimonides . . . . . Martin Buber . . . . . Martin Lings . . . . . Mircea Eliade . . . . . Paul Tillich . . . . . Pavel Florensky . . . . . Peter Geach . . . . . Pico della Mirandola . . . . . Reinhold Niebuhr . . . . . René Descartes . . . . . René Guénon . . . . . Richard Swinburne . . . . . Rudolf Bultmann . . . . . Robert Merrihew Adams . . . . . Rudolf Otto . . . . . Soren Kierkegaard . . . . . Sergei Bulgakov . . . . . Thomas Aquinas . . . . . Thomas Chubb . . . . . Vladimir Solovyov . . . . . Walter Kaufmann . . . . . William Alston . . . . . William James . . . . . William Lane Craig . . . . . W.K. Clifford . . . . . William L. Rowe . . . . . William Whewell . . . . . William Wollaston . . . . . Criticism of religion . . . . . Ethics in religion . . . . . Exegesis . . . . . History of religions . . . . . Religion . . . . . Religious language . . . . . Religious philosophy . . . . . Theology . . . . . Relationship between religion and science . . . . . Political science of religion . . . . . Faith and rationality . . . . .
 
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