All of the above universes make (If Emo Phillips is a camel then everything
is a bullfrog) TRUE
The first universe makes true by making the antecedent false. (Any conditional is true if it's antecedent is false, so it doesn't matter what the truth value of the consequent is so long as the antecedent is false.)
The second universe makes true by making the consequent true. (Any conditional is true if it's consequent is true, so it doesn't matter what the truth value of the antecedent is so long as the consequent is true.)
The third universe is basically the same as the second universe, except that it makes the antecedent true. Which doesn't matter.
There's a couple of other ways to draw universes where is true, and you can figure out what they are if you want to. But you don't have to.
Copyright © 2005 by Martin C. Young
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