Logic Chapter Twenty One

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Remember the formula , which meant "All things in the universe are bullfrogs?" Well, think about what it would mean if it was true. It would mean that you, me, and everyone else, and all the cars, monkeys and freeway systems in the world are bullfrogs! In fact, everything you could name, and everything you couldn't name, would be a bullfrog. So if  is true, it follows that Bd, Be and Bf are also true, whatever "d," "e," and "f" stand for! This gives us another rule:


























Okay, try to derive some of the following arguments. (Not all of them are valid, so some can't be derived.)








































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Copyright 2009 by Martin C. Young

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